Research

Medical Physics and Radiation Biology

Outline

Medical Physics

The Physics Group provides the medical physics services in the heavy ion and photon beam facilities, as a part of the treatment team. The service includes facility maintenance, treatment planning, quality assurance of the therapeutic devices, and others. Specifically in the heavy ion radiation therapy, we are responsible for the overall operation and the maintenance of the treatment facilities to ensure the smooth and stable treatment delivery. We are responsible for the medical physics course, which is a part of the Master Course in Biomedical Sciences. This course aims to develop the medical physicists. In the Doctor Course, we accept doctoral students and develop research physicists for developing heavy ion radiation therapy devices, as well as the radiobiologists in cooperation with the Biology Group. We are actively working to meet the needs by doctors and therapists, pursuing research and development for the heavy ion radiation therapy and advanced X‐ray therapy while undertaking operations and education.

 

Radiation Biology

We conduct research from a radiobiological point of view, which forms the basis of heavy ion and photon beam radiotherapy for cancer. To understand the fundamental concepts of radiation therapy, it is important to study the findings of biology and physics in an integrated manner. The findings of the Biology Group concerning the radiation response mechanism of normal cells and cancer cells studied at the molecular, cell and tissue level are analyzed in combination with the findings of the Physics Group with the aim of verifying and optimizing radiation therapies. Our ultimate aim is to clarify the radiation response of hard-to-treat refractory cancers and the mechanism by which they acquire radiation resistance, and apply the findings to radiation therapy. The aim of our postgraduate education is to give students a taste of the profundity of radiation biology. At the same time, we seek to foster researchers who always consider how their research contributes to society. We welcome people from within and outside the university who want to pursue basic research into cancer and radiation, people who want to consolidate their knowledge towards playing an active role as a clinician, and people who are interested in biology and biophysics.

Members

Medical Physics

Title Name Department
Professor Masami Torikoshi, Ph.D.  Physics Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Special Duty Professor Tatsuaki Kanai, Ph.D. Physics Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Satoru Yamada, Ph.D. Physics Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Visiting Professor Kazuo Arakawa, Ph.D. Physics Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Associate Professor Kota Torikai, Ph.D. University Hospital System Integration Center
Mutsumi Tashiro, Ph.D. Research Program for Heavy Ion Therapy, Division of Integrated Oncology Research, Gunma University Initiative for Advanced Research (GIAR)
Assistant Professor Ken Yusa, Ph.D. Physics Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Hirofumi Shimada, Ph.D. Physics Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Akihiko Matsumura, Ph.D. Physics Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Yoshiki Kubota, Ph.D. Physics Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Motohiro Kawashima, Ph.D. Education and Research Support Center, Graduate School of Medicine
Hikaru Souda, Ph.D. Education and Research Support Center, Graduate School of Medicine
Makoto Sakai, Ph.D. Education and Research Support Center, Graduate School of Medicine
Yoshiyuki Hirano, Ph.D. Education and Research Support Center, Graduate School of Medicine
Kyohei Fukata Department of Radiation Oncology
Researcher Mikiko Kikuchi Education and Research Support Center, Graduate School of Medicine
Technical Assistant Madoka Fujisaki Education and Research Support Center, Graduate School of Medicine

 

Radiation biology

Title Name Department
Professor Akihisa Takahashi, Ph.D.  Medicine & Biology Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Visiting Professor Koichi Ando, D.D.S., Ph.D. Medicine & Biology Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Yasuhiko Kobayashi, Ph.D. Medicine & Biology Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Assistant Professor Yukari Yoshida, Ph.D. Medicine & Biology Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Technical Researcher Mayu Isono, Ph.D. Medicine & Biology Division, Heavy Ion Medical Center
Tomoko Yakoh Education and Research Support Center, Graduate School of Medicine

Research

Medical Physics

The technology for heavy ion radiotherapy contributes to the evolution and improvement of radiation therapy, but it is still a young field with much room for development. It is important to develop new irradiation methods using the characteristics of heavy ion beams and improving the accuracy of the irradiation to reduce the dose to the normal tissue around the tumor, which result directly in successful treatment. Many developments are required for the new irradiation methods: accelerator science for providing a stable beams; optimum methods for efficient and accurate patient positioning; optimum irradiation methods based on analysis of therapeutic effect, and so on. The range of endeavor is very broad, from accelerator science to image processing for dose measurement, calculation and positioning, and analysis of therapeutic effect. Our current target is to improve the efficiency of the various treatment processes, and to speed up development of the methods to process the treatment deliveries duging a significant increase of patients without loosing accuracy. This includes developing the treatment planning technique for creating optimal treatment plans and methods for omitting or facilitating the dose calibration and verification of the dose distribution that are currently performed for each patient. In addition, we are pursuing a variety of research and development including methods of accurately irradiating internal moving organs, technologies for accurately irradiating very small targets, and achieving new irradiation treatments using scanning devices. We also carry out research and development for efficient irradiation and accurate treatment with X‐ray therapy. In the development of new irradiation methods, it is essential to confirm the biological effects, in collaboration with the Biology Group as the final step. Analysis of the results of treatment is also important, and we undertake joint research in close cooperation with various researchers such as the physicians and biologists. We are pursuing research to contribute to advances in heavy ion radiation therapy and X-ray radiation therapy for the benefit of society.

 

Radiation biology

Verification and optimization of radiation therapy methods
Radiation therapy uses an irradiation method called fractionated irradiation which reduces side effects by exploiting the difference in the radiation response of normal cells and cancer cells. The Biology Group uses heavy ion beams and X-rays to investigate the radiation response of cells and tissues with fractionated irradiation. Through analysis of the effects of fractionated irradiation, we aim to contribute to optimizing radiation therapy methods.

Elucidation of the radiation response and molecular mechanism of refractory cancer
We aim to clarify the radiation response of intractable cancer cells and the mechanism by which they acquire radiation resistance, as well as the combined effects of radiation and medication and the relevant molecular mechanisms, and to apply the findings to radiation therapy.

Elucidation of the interaction between normal cells and cancer cells
There are always normal cells surrounding cancer cells. We aim to clarify the interaction of both types of cell in response to radiation, to reduce the damage to normal cells, and improve the therapeutic effect against cancer cells.

Publications

Presentations

M. Tashiro, Respiratory motion management for carbon-ion therapy at GHMC, The 2nd International Symposium of Gunma University Program for Leading Graduate Schools, Maebashi, Japan, Jan. 24, 2014.

Y. Kubota, A. Matsumura, E. Urakabe, T. Kanai, S. Minohara, and T. Nakano, Three-dimensional tracking method for organ motion on two cross-sectional ultrasound images: phantom study, Third International Conference on Real-time Tumor-tracking Radiation Therapy with 4D Molecular Imaging Technique (2013.2.7-8, Sapporo, Japan).

Y Kubota, A Matsumura, M Fukahori, S Minohara, H Nagahashi, H Imada, S Yasuda, T Kanai, T Nakano, A study of three-dimensional tracking method for organ motion on diagnostic ultrasound images, The 31st Sapporo International Cancer Symposium (2012.7.23–24, Sapporo, Japan).

M Tashiro, A Ishizaki, H Shimada, K Yusa, T Kanai, S Yamada, T Ohno, T Nakano, Investigation of respiratory-gated carbon treatment using motion-included dose distribution, The 31st Sapporo International Cancer Symposium (2012.7.23–24, Sapporo, Japan).

E Takeshita, T Kanai S Yamada, K Yusa, M Tashiro, H Shimada, K Torikai, A Saito, Y Kubota A Matsumura, M Kawashima, Beam quality ensuring instruments at the Gunma University Heavy-Ion Medical Center, International Beam Instrumentation Conference (IBIC2012) (2012.10.1–4, Tsukuba, Japan).

A Saito, R Kashani, S Ozawa, K Karasawa, E E Klein, Patient Clearance Simulation for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy, ASTRO’s 54th Annual Meeting (2012.10.28–31, Boston, USA).

T Kanai, K Yusa, M Tashiro, H Shimada, K Torikai, J Koya, Y Ishii, Y Yoshida, S Yamada, T Ohno, T Nakano, The carbon-ion cancer therapy facility at Gunma University, International School on Hadrontherapy, 2nd workshop: Hadron beam therapy of Cancer (2011.5.20–27, Erice-Sicily, Italia).

A Saito, D Rangaraj, G Palaniswaamy, S Yaddanapudi, S Ozawa, K Karasawa, S Mutic, E E Klein, A Statistical Technique to Unmask Accelerator Performance Trend, 2011 Joint AAPM/COMP Meeting (2011.7.31-8.4, Vancouver, Canada)

M Tashiro, H Shimada, K Yusa, T Kanai, S Yamada, T Ohno, T Nakano, Investigation of Respiratory-Gated Carbon Treatment Planning Using Motion-Included Dose Distribution, 51st Annual Meeting of Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG51) (2012.5.17–19, Seoul, Korea).

K Yusa, E Takeshita, H Shimada, M Tashiro, T Kanai, S Yamada, Commissioning of Spiral Wobbling Irradiation System at Gunma University, 51st Annual Meeting of Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG51) (2012.5.17–19, Seoul, Korea).

Y Yoshida, K Ando, S Koike, A Uzawa, K Ando, K Murata, Y Yoshimoto, A Musha, N Kubo, H Kawamura, Y Matsumoto, R Hirayama, Y Suzuki, T Takahashi, T Ohno, T Nakano, Biological gain of fractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for tumor growth delay and crypt survival, 51st Annual Meeting of Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG51) (2012.5.17–19, Seoul, Korea).

M Tashiro, T Ishii, J Koya, R Okada, Y Kurosawa, K Arai, S Abe, H Shimada, K Yusa, K Torikai, T Kanai, S Yamada, H Kawamura, T Ebara, T Ohno, T Nakano, Technical approach and validation of respiratory-gated carbon-ion therapy for mobile organs at Gunma University, 50th Annual Meeting of Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG50) (2011.5.12–14, Philadelphia, USA).

Y Yoshida, M Tashiro, A Musha, T Kanai, H Kawamura, M Sakama, T Takahashi, T Ohno, K Ando, T Nakano, Biophysical assessment for treatment planning of carbon-ion therapy, 14th International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR), (2011.8.27-9.2, Warsaw, Poland).

H Shimada, M Tashiro, Y Ishi, K Yusa, M Mizota, H Asakura, K Torikai, A Ishizaki, S Yamada, T Kanai, Verification of daily carbon ion radiotherapy at Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, 50th Annual Meeting of Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG50) (2011.5.12–14, Philadelphia, USA).

K Torikai, S Yamada, T Kanai, E Takeshita, K Yusa, M Tashiro, H Shimada, T Nakano, SUB-mm Therapeutic Carbon-ion Irradiation Port in Gunma University, International Particle Accelerator Confrerence 2011 (IPAC2011), (2011, San Sebastian, Spain).

T Kanai, How to irradiate target volumes with carbon beams using passive and scanning irradiation systems, NIRS International Symposium on Radiation Life Sciences, (2010.6.11–12, Chiba, Japan).

T Kanai, N Matsufuji, Y Kase, T Inaniwa, M Sakama, K Yusa, M Tashiro, H Shimada, K Torikai, J Koya, T Ishii, Y Yoshida, S Yamada, T Nakano, Broad beam carbon therapy at Gunma University, 49th Annual Meeting of Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG49) (2010.5.20–22, Maebashi, Japan).

Y Yoshida, S Ishiuchi, K Tsuzuki, M Hasegawa, M Hosaka, T Funayama, Y Kobayashi, Y Nakazato, T Nakano, Biological effect of high linear energy transfer charged particle and X-ray on human brain cancers, 49th Annual Meeting of Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG49) (2010.5.20–22, Maebashi, Japan).

Y Yoshida, T Takahashi, T Kanai, A Musha, H Kawamura, M Okamoto, K Yusa, M Tashiro, M Sakama, H Shimada, T Ohno, K Ando, T Nakano, Preclinical biological assessment for treatment planning of carbon-ion therapy, 49th Annual Meeting of Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG49) (2010.5.20–22, Maebashi, Japan).

Y Yoshida, Y Suzuki, W Al-Jahdari, N Hamada, K Shirai, T Funayama, T Sakashita, Y Kobayashi, H Yorifuji, S Ozawa, T Nakano, The biological effects of X-rays and carbon ion beam on the postnatal cerebellum in organotypic slice cultures, 49th Annual Meeting of Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG49) (2010.5.20–22, Maebashi, Japan).

H Shimada, M Yamaguchi, N Kawachi, K Torikai, S Watanabe, H Aono, H Odaka, S Ishikawa, S Takeda, S Watanabe, Y Yoshida, Y Suzuki, T Takahashi, K Arakawa, T Nakano, Development of Si/CdTe Compton Camera for Medical Imaging, 48th Annual Meeting of Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG48), (2009, Heidelberg, Germany).

 

Articles

Y. Kubota, A. Matsumura, M. Fukahori, S. Minohara, S. Yasuda, and H. Nagahashi, A new method for tracking organ motion on diagnostic ultrasound images, Med. Phys. 41(9), 092901-1-8 (2014).

M. Tashiro, T. Ishii, J. Koya, R. Okada, Y. Kurosawa, K. Arai, S. Abe, Y. Ohashi, H. Shimada, K. Yusa, T. Kanai, S. Yamada, H. Kawamura, T. Ebara, T. Ohno, T. Nakano, Technical approach to individualized respiratory-gated carbon-ion therapy for mobile organs, Radiological Physics and Technology, 6(2): 356-366, 2013.

K Shirai, T Mizui, Y Suzuki, M Okamoto, K Hanamura, Y Yoshida, M Hino, S E Noda, W S Al-Jahdari, A Chakravarti, T Shirao, T Nakano, X irradiation Changes Dendritic Spine Morphology and Density through Reduction of Cytoskeletal Proteins in Mature Neurons, Radiat Res 179, 630–636 (2013).

Y Suzuki, M Yamaguchi, H Odaka, H Shimada, Y Yoshida, K Torikai, T Satoh, K Arakawa, N Kawachi, S Watanabe, S Takeda, S N Ishikawa, H Aono, S Watanabe, T Takahashi, T Nakano, Three-dimensional and Multienergy Ganma-ray Simultaneous Imaging by Using a Si/CdTe Compton Camera, Radiology 267, 941–947 (2013).

A Musha, Y Yoshida, T Takahashi, K Ando, T Funayama, Y Kobayashi, A Negishi, S Yokoo, T Nakano, Synergistic effect of heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and X-rays, but not carbon-ion beams, on lethality in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, J Radiat Res 53, 545–550 (2012).

Y Yoshida, Y Suzuki, W S Al-Jahdari, N Hamada, T Funayama, K Shirai, H Katoh, T Sakashita, Y Kobayashi, T Nakano, Evaluation of the relative biological effectiveness of carbon ion beams in the cerebellum using the rat organotypic slice culture system, J. Radiat. Res. 53, 87–92 (2012).

M Kawashima, S Ozawa, A Haga, A Sakumi, C Kurokawa, S Sugimoto, K Karasawa, K Nakagawa, K Sasai, Comparison of total MU and segment areas in VMAT and step-and-shoot IMRT plans, Radiol. Phys. Technol., Published online: 1 July 2012.

M Sakama, T Kanai, Y Kase, K Yusa, M Tashiro, K Torikai, H Shimada, S Yamada, T Ohno, T Nakano, Design of ridge filters for spread-out Bragg peaks with Monte Carlo simulation in carbon ion therapy, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 6615–6633 (2012).

T Kanai, Radiation Therapy using high-energy carbon beams. Atomic Processes in Basic and Applied Physics, V Shevelco and H Tawara, Eds, Chap 13, 333–356 (2012).

T Ohno, T Kanai, S Yamada, K Yusa, M Tashiro, H Shimada, K Torikai, Y Yoshida, Y Kitada, H Kato, T Ishii, T Nakano, Carbon Ion Radiotherapy at the Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center: New Facility Set-up, Cancers 3, 4046–4060 (2011).

Yamaguchi M, Kawachi N, Suzui N, Fujimaki S, Kamiya T, Odaka H, Ishikawa S, Kokubun M, Watanabe S, Takahashi T, Shimada H, Arakawa K, Suzuki Y, Torikai K, Yoshida Y, Nakano T. Development of head module for multi-head Si/CdTe Comptoncamera for medical applications. Nuclear Instrument and Methods in Physics Research A. 648:S2-S7, 2011.

C P Karger, O Jaekel, H Palmans, T Kanai, Dosimetry for ion beam radiotherapy, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, R193 (2010).

M Sakama, T Kanai, A Fukumura, K Abe, Evaluation of w values for carbon beams in air, using a graphite calorimeter, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 1111–1130 (2009).

M Tashiro, S Minohara, T Kanai, K Yusa, H Sakurai, T Nakano, Three-dimensional velocity mapping of lung motion using vessel bifurcation pattern matching, Med. Phys. 33, 1747–1757 (2006).

T Kanai, N Matsufuji, T Miyamoto, J Mizoe, T Kamada, H Tsuji, H Katou, M Baba, H Tsujii, Examination of GyE System for HIMAC Carbon Therapy, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 64, 650–656 (2006).

T Kanai, N Kanematsu, S Minohara, M Komori, M Torikoshi, H Asakura, N Ikeda, T Uno, Y Takei, Commissioning of a conformal irradiation system for heavy-ion radiotherapy using a layer-stacking method, Med. Phys. 33, 2989–2997 (2006).

M Sakama, T Kanai, Y Kase, M Komori, A Fukumura, T Kohno, Responses of diamond detector to high-LET charged particles, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2275–2289 (2005).

T Kanai, A Fukumura, Y Kusano, M Shimbo and T Nishio, Cross-calibration of ionization chamber in proton and carbon beams, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 771–781 (2004).

P Andreo, D T Burns, K Hohlfield, M S Huq, T Kanai, F Laitano, V G Smyth and S Vynckier, Absorbed Dose Determination in External Beam Radiotherapy: An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water, IAEA Publication, Technical Reports Series, No 398 (2000).

T Kanai, M Endo, S Minohara, N Miyahara, H Koyama-Ito, H Tomura, N Matsufuji, Y Futami, A Fukumura, T Hiraoka, Y Furusawa, K Ando, M Suzuki, F Soga, K Kawachi, Biophysical Characteristics of HIMAC Clinical Irradiation System for Heavy-ion Radiation Therapy, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 44, 201–210 (1999).

T Kanai, M Sudo, N Matsufuji, Y Futami, Initial recombination in a parallel-plate ionization chamber exposed to heavy-ions, Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3549–3558 (1998).

T Kanai, Y Furusawa, K Fukutsu, H Itsukaichi, K Eguchi-Kasai, H Ohara, Irradiation of Mixed Beam and Design of Spread-Out Bragg Peak for Heavy-ion Radiotherapy. Radiat. Res. 147, 78–85 (1997).